Prior to the emergence of the environmental school, criminologists had focused on overly-simplified biological and physiological explanations, locating crime within the individual. For example, positivist theorists like Lombroso1 argued that pathology was located in the individual, and could be identified and even predicted by studying 'body type'…
The theory of ‘social disorganisation’ is built largely upon the work of Park and Burgess, ‘The City’ published in 1925. Not only does the term ‘social disorganisation’ attempt to explain and understand deviance, it also attempts to explain why the manner in which a society is structured can exacerbate such behaviour - akin to Marxist theories, but without the political overtones. Following World War I and the Great Depression of the 1930s there was greater geographic mobility into the cities and away from rural areas as more people became economic refugees. Chicago’s population exploded from 4,100 inhabitants in 1833 to over 2 million by 1910 making it a live laboratory for study. For the first time, researchers were encouraged by Professors such as Robert Park to ‘go get the seat of your pants dirty in real research.’ Throughout the 1920s and 1930s environmental criminology researchers took themselves where ‘criminals’ hung out – such as non-middle class bars and restaurants – crucially developing the tools now known as qualitative research methods. ‘These sociologists and criminologists went into bars, inside gangs, and into the inner sanctums of deviant populations to find out what constituted their realities.’
Cities such as Chicago became rapidly over-crowded. Researchers of the time noticed that crime rates also increased. What was remarkable was that even when convicted criminals moved away from cities, the crime rate did not fall significantly. A question of interest at the time was, could it be possible that certain areas of a city were 'criminogenic' Could certain areas of a City be pathological, leading to a 'flight or fight' response Could crime be an instinctive and natural defensive response to an unnatural and potentially harmful environment
Park and Burgess introduced the notion of modern cities having clearly identifiable zones, each with its own moral norm. Burgess argued that all cities radiated out in concentric circles from the city's business centre (referred to as 'downtown'), through the 'zone of transition' - mainly populated by low income groups with little vested interest in maintaining their low-rent neighbourhood - through to the zone of worker homes, the 'bungalow' section populated by the chattering classes, and finally stopping at the 'commuter zone'. In short, the closer one lived to 'downtown' the more likely one would be a perpetrator or victim of crime.
Researchers began to study individuals and groups within their 'natural' environments, attempting to explain everyday activities within a criminological framework. Hence they looked at poverty, birth and mortality rates, crime statistics, welfare records, indeed anything which might be relevant in determining the motivation for certain anti-social behaviours, including life-histories using observation and in-depth interviews. Whilst the initial impetus was primarily academic, the pragmatic, hands-on nature of the research had a ...
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Marketing environment consists of “the actors and forces outside marketing that affect the marketing management’s ability to build and maintain successful relationships with target customers.” (Kotler and Armstrong, 2008) The marketing environment can be broadly classified into Micro environment which consists of actors close to the company and Macro environment which involves larger societal factors.
One of the most controversial and longest running debates in the history of Western thought focuses on the influence of genes and environmental factors on personality or individual differences. Interestingly, the earlier set of behavioral genetic studies has convinced many that both genetic and environmental factors influence personality development.
CJS is practiced in law enforcement, in the criminal defence field and in private security organisations around the world. In some organizations, it is used informally as part of an investigator's work. In others, it is applied by uniquely trained personnel who are commonly called 'intelligence analysts', 'crime analysts', or 'criminal information analysts'.
It is also important to figure out is it the physiological (or biological) factors of the body and not at mental aspects of the brain.
Human actions are governed by incentives and disincentives. We are attracted by the hope of pleasure or gain, deterred by the fear of pain or loss.
However it is difficult to precisely identify a definite date from which the crimes became a serious problem for the society. But no specific solution has been found to tackle this problem. People have attempted to find different solutions like inventing sophisticated technical devices, working out various social development programmes, making psychological researches which aim at preventing the crimes.
As an illustration, heroin abuse does lead to financial criminal behaviours; that is, the abusers commit crimes with the specific objective being the financing and re-financing of their heroin habits. A more general causal relationship, that substance abuse per se causes crimes in all spheres, is simply not supported by the empirical data.
The distinction between psychopathy and ASPD is of considerable significance to the mental health and criminal justice systems.
In the UK, 'psychopatic disorder' is a legal term used in the Mental Health Act 1983, and is 'a persistent disorder or disability of mind which results in abnormally aggressive or seriously irresponsible conduct'.
Responsibility for a crime committed does not reside with the offender, but instead is a result of a social problem. For example, if a teenage male participates in a holdup of a convenience store, proponents of the social problem approach will point to poor parenting, poor education, lack of adult role models, or other similar disadvantages facing the young man to explain his actions in committing the robbery.
Economic progress is clearly a factor of the interdependence between different economic entities. Without the endless opportunities presented by global marketing, there would be limited growth prospects. In this era, numerous organizations are successfully conducting marketing campaigns both locally and globally.
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