Traditionally, the formulation of social policies is based on the maximisation of social justice. Marshall (1998) stated that social justice entails the allocation of scarce commodities to the population; the foundation of these policies is centred on due process, impartiality, and implementation of suitable distribution criteria. De Jasay (2004) describes the effect of social justice as a balance distributor of income. Likewise, achieving social justice will result to the elimination of injustices in societies.
Amidst the perceived importance of aligning social justice to social policies, there have been risks associated with the policies. In effect, some social polices have become detriments instead of growth drivers. Holzmann and Jorgensen (2000) mentioned that risks circumstances that produce adverse effects as social policies are implemented. The next discussion will focus on the extent of risk minimisation in the labour policies and education in United Kingdom (UK).
In order to understand the theoretical framework for the mentioned policies, this discussion will present a backgrounder. Finch (1984) contended that education is used as a vehicle that guides other forms of social polices. For example, the universal coverage of education makes the formulation policies regarding children easy. The formulation of education policies have been aimed at the development of individuals' intellectual and social potentials. Also, education is used to transmit social norms and values and to practise social control. In addition, the education policies mould individuals to become quality workers and productive economic contributors. Finally, educational policies are effective in motoring social changes.
Among the models of education, UK has been known to practise vocationalism. This means that educational policies are linked with practical applications and addressing the economic issues. The educational system provides different training among various groups. Recent changes in UK that have seen the participation of the government is the decision making of schools. In addition, the government has been providing financial support to learning institutions that has rigorously implemented the state's educational policies. (Halsey et al, 1997)
With the introduction of New Labour, the educational policies of UK shifted to the provision of positive and challenging learning opportunities among students (Fielding, 1999). Kennedy (1997) has stressed the need of reinvented policies to eliminate the negative effects of the increasing inequality in education. Hayton (1998) proved that the New Labour managed to address the alarming situation of inequality by focusing on the critical aspects of the system.
The labour policy in UK came into prominence with the election of Margaret Thatcher as Prime Minister. Before the reforms in the labour policies were crafted, it was observed that there was poor comparison of labour policies manifested by UK to that of other countries. Protection against dismissal was weakened and employees who have worked for at leas two years for a firm are given documented explanations of their dismissal. As a result, a conclusion was