StudentShare solutions
Triangle menu

Realist Theories - Essay Example

Not dowloaded yet

Extract of sample
Realist Theories

Of the numerous criminology theories that have been propounded over the centuries, the 'realist' theories grew out of the desire to shift attention from theoretical rumblings, and as the name suggests, take a more realistic, practical and proactive steps towards combating crime. The right and left realist theories could be seen as ideological polar opposites, that though, share the similarity of intention to combat crime practically, still took varying approaches to what constitutes crime and what could be considered as appropriate solutions to criminality (Matthews and Young, 1992).
The Right Realism Theory, also known as New Right Realism, Neo-Classicism or Neo-Positivism, considers the phenomenon of crime from the perspective of political Conservatism. It argues that its views takes a more realistic view of the causes of crime and deviance, and identifies the best mechanisms for crime control. The theory has its origins in Control Theory and, as such, it is related to the functionalist theories of crime. In this model it is argued that fundamental types of control exist:
i. Direct Control: by which punishment is threatened or applied for wrongful behaviour, and compliance is rewarded by parents, family, and authority figures.
ii. Indirect Control: by which a youth refrains from delinquency because his or her delinquent act might cause pain and disappointment to parents and others with whom he or she has close relationships.
iii. Internal Control: by which a person's conscience or sense of guilt prevents him or her from engaging in delinquent acts (Lowman and MacLean, 1992).
The main focus of the right realist is the control and prevention of criminal behaviours. The right realist believes that criminals must be prevented from breaking criminal laws, with appropriate social structures, such as zero police tolerance, and if crime is committed, the offender should be severely penalized, to serve as deterrence (Akers, 1990). The major point of variance of the right realist theory from other criminology theories is that unlike most of the other theories, the right realist does not concern himself with the exploration of the concepts of power and structures in the society, or with the cumbersome scientific process of developing or investigating the role of causality (i.e. causes), in relation to crime and deviance. There is thus, an over dependence on official statistics of criminality and crime rates, as evidences for policy making. The right realist therefore adopts the language of "realism" to describe the lawmaking process, instead of addressing the causes of the "crimes" being created. James Q. Wilson who was President Regan's adviser on crime, for example, rejects the idea that crime has "root causes" that can be found in the structural contexts of people's lives (Clarke and Cornish 1985; Lowman and MacLean, 1992).
In rejecting the basis of the several structural explanation of crime, the right realist thus turns to cultural and social explanations for criminality. They see crime as a result of decline in family values or social ...Show more

Summary

Criminology is an ever expanding field of knowledge, the efforts towards understanding; curtailing and preventing crime has been as varied as the various theories about crime and criminality that abounds. In this respect, several opinions have been proffered as what constitutes crime and what does not, or the intent and motivations behind criminality…
Author : qberge
Realist Theories essay example
Read Text Preview
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the essay on your topic
"Realist Theories"
with a personal 20% discount.
Grab the best paper

Related Essays

I.R
The impact of the theory of realism crosses the threshold to enter the non-realist theories such as liberalism, another political theory based on the positive human values such as right to freedom, favoring democratic rights. So far an exchange between the two theories has not been fruitful because the neorealist theory stresses with sureness that such an interaction would be a useless exercise.
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Module: Contemporary Theories of World Politics. Topic: In what ways can a classical realist be critical of Waltz's neorealism
Introduced as early as 1948, classical realism came into being as a natural response when the proponents of this international relations theory, such as E.H. Carr, Hans Morgenthau, and Reinhold Niebuhr, came to recognize the failure of liberalism to maintain global peace during the World War II.
6 pages (1500 words) Essay
Conflicts can lead to distruction
As in the case of many other global issues, America’s foreign policy is making the problems worse. America is trying to catch the fish from the muddy water as far as China-Japan Conflict is concerned. China and Japan are rapidly emerging economies in Asia at present.
6 pages (1500 words) Essay
Realist Theory
The phrase which is actually practicable is used in many phenomenon than any other theory as a principal of explaining the functioning in the international system and community. Whichever the meaning, the term infers that at one point power is distributed between the states to create an equilibrium state.
6 pages (1500 words) Essay
Wide realist definitions of state and anarchy
Wide realist definitions of state and anarchy? The realist concepts of 'state' and 'anarchy' Wide realist definitions of state and anarchy The realist concept of 'state' and 'anarchy' is that different countries have different interests and desires, and in the pursuit of such interests, there are chances that the countries will conflict.
13 pages (3250 words) Essay
Realist and Neo-Realist International Relations
Realism is the type of IR theory that interprets all aspect of international politics as reducible to a struggle for power, with the state seen as a unitary entity in control (more or less) of its destiny, the main actor but conditioned in its behaviour by the "international anarchy", the absence of government in interstate sphere that is regarded as the hallmark of international politics.
3 pages (750 words) Essay
The Realist Criminology
Both considers 'social inequality' to be the main bone of contention behind increasing crime rates and this is no doubt true on a global context as well as in Britain. Over the years, increasing rate of crime has proven many theoretical forms and philosophies to which the present-day society has given birth to 'aggression' between the individual man and everyone else, thereby producing a social war in which everyone is taking part irrespective of social structure of class and economic system.
10 pages (2500 words) Essay
Humanitarian Intervention: A Realist Perspective
In the post-Cold War international system, humanitarian intervention has become a key issue of deliberation, and perhaps poses the greatest challenge to the norms of international society.
4 pages (1000 words) Essay
I.R
The impact of the theory of realism crosses the threshold to enter the non-realist theories such as liberalism, another political theory based on the positive human values such as right to freedom, favoring democratic rights. So far an exchange between the two
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Realist Theories of IR
The world as it is inherently a world of opposing interests. According to Morgenthau (1973), political realism is guided by six principles: objectivity, concept of interest defined in power, interest defined as power, awareness of the moral
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Get a custom paper written
by a pro under your requirements!
Win a special DISCOUNT!
Put in your e-mail and click the button with your lucky finger
Your email
YOUR PRIZE:
Apply my DISCOUNT
Comments (0)
Rate this paper:
Thank you! Your comment has been sent and will be posted after moderation