Thus the quest for more urban space itself is responsible for disturbing the social, economic and cultural fabrics of many suburban area and Greenfield areas.
Population decentralization has seen a significant decline in the city population and urban migration to suburban rural areas. In Britain rigid conservation bodies protect rural heritage and limit development in Greenfield areas. Recent policy changes have restricted Greenfield development, planning new pressures upon regional and local planning authorities to create planning solutions to this growing problem and ensure there is an adequate supply of Brownfield land for development. This paper examines the evolution of the urban regeneration policy in Britain since the year 1977 through an in-depth literature review and concludes on its important aspects so as to arrive at clearer understanding of the overall situation. For illustrative purposes the paper explores the policy formation in he most important debate in urban regeneration i.e. Brownfield development.
With new restrictions on Greenfield development, government has now turned to the urban regeneration of Brownfield sites as the solution to satisfying growing demand due to changes in household and outer migration. For regeneration to be successful in the long term, the economic and social well being of the community must also be considered. 'Without regard for economic, social and culture aspects, property development may not meet the needs of the community and be unsustainable in the long run, not withstanding any short term profitability that might be achieved' (Syms, 2002) The restriction of Greenfield development has meant planning authorities and developers now look to sustainable urban regeneration, by increasing housing density to cater for housing demand and need. Successful sustainable regeneration demands the economic, social and environmental revitalization of urban regions to attract business investment back into inner urban areas. As the good practice examples in this document show [deleted] neighbourhoods renewal starts from a proper understanding of the needs of communities. Communities need to be consulted and listened to, and the most effective interventions are often those where communities are actively involved in their design and delivery, and where possible in the driving seat. Often, this applies as much to 'communities of interest' - like black and minority ethnic groups, faith communities, older or younger people, or a disabled person - as it does to geographical communities. The report on the Stephen Lawrence inquiry points to some important lessons for all service providers in how institutions need to do better for black and minority
ethnic groups. (Social, 2001)
"[The Government] Strategy represents a huge change in the pace and scale of the Government's attack on deprivation. It combines action and resources to tackle individual problems such as unemployment, crime and poor services, as well as new mechanisms to empower residents, and join up action on the ground and in Whitehall. It offers a major shift in approach, away from regeneration programmes shoring up poor public services in only a few areas, towards ensuring
high quality public services in all neighbourhoods". (Social, 2001) To achieve the government's new objectives,