The refugee has to contend with the conflicts on a personal and on a social level. The refugee situation is best described by Hannah Arendt in her work, The Origins of Totalirianism: We lost our home, which means the familiarity of daily life. We lost our occupation, which means the confidence that we are of some use in this world. We lost our language, which means the naturalness of reactions, the simplicity of gestures, the unaffected expression of feelings. We left our relatives in the Polish ghettos and our best friends have been killed in concentration camps, and that means the rupture of our private lives. The refugee question is multi-dimensional. The political context of the refugee question has been tackled by Xenos. Xenos is concerned with refugees being used as pawns in struggles between states, as was the case with the Haitian boat people in what he refers to as 'strategic human flows'. The basis of these flows, he maintains, is the development of the nation-state in terms of national identity and the social construction of a people within specific territory, the hyphenating of nation-state within borders. The overarching drive for territorial nation-state expels those who either resist or cannot accommodate those pressures. Xenos emphasized that it is the pressure to construct the trinity of state–nation–territory that causes refugee flows....
Both uprootings cited by Xenos place the refugee outside the confines of the nation-state, within which traditional norms and rules exist and rights are allowed to be expressed.
a.) The specific advice one can give to Erma is that she merits protection in Moominland. There are two reasons for this. The first reason is that Homeland is a signatory to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, the 1967 Protocol and the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR). Section I, Article of the ECHR states that "Everyone's right to life shall be protected by law. No one shall be deprived of his life intentionally save in the execution of a sentence of a court following his conviction of a crime for which this penalty is provided by law."4 Moreover, Article III of Section I stipulates that "No one shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment". Finally, Article IV of the ECHR also states that "Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person". Female genital mutilation is a violation of all the protocols of the 1951 Convention, the 1967 Protocol and the ECHR provisions since it causes harm to the integrity and health of the person. In some cases, female genital mutilation (FGM) results in death due to bleeding and infection from the procedure. In African culture female genital mutilation is required for a proper marriage, and it is required for the virtue of the woman or for the honor of her family. Female "circumcision" covers practices involving the complete or partial removal or alteration of the external genitalia for nonmedical reasons and appears in widely varied cultural contexts in African and other populations. 5 Gerry Mackie tackles the heterogeneity of these practices: "a group may perform it