First, affirmative action is still necessary because of lack of equality. White males typically earn significantly more than women and minorities. According to the National Committee on Pay Equity, women, overall, make 71 cents dollars as compared to men who make a dollar. While minority men make more than non-minority and minority women, non-minority males make about $ 9,000 more than minority men, $ 14,000 more than non-minority women and $ 17,000 more than minority women in white-collar occupations, according to the Federal Civilian Workforce. Without the aid of affirmative action, women and minorities will continue to fall behind in the workforce. Affirmative action is still necessary in order to ensure equality among white men, women, and minorities. By using affirmative action, that is race-neutral and gender-neutral assurance against discrimination, we can live up to our country's states.
Second, affirmative action is needed to create diversity in America. Affirmative action allows people of different races and backgrounds to interact in the workplace and universities. During 1996, Neil Rudenstine, president of Harvard University, explained Harvard's commitment to diversity by using John Stuart Mill, who emphasized the value of people being in contact with people who are different from them. Justice Powell who stated, " a diversity of opinions, experiences, backgrounds, talents, aspirations, and perspectives helped college students to feel great intellectual exchange, exploration, and growth”.