According to her the socio-cultural and religious paradigms are key factors that promote male domination and irrational perception towards the role of women in society.
Author also asserts that constitutional and legal parameters of rape against women need to be ‘within the context of modern violence and not within the purview of ancient masculine code, crime retains its unique dimensions’ (52). She has also raised one of the most critical issue within the context of rape. The male perceive rape as violation of the ‘male rights of possession, based on male requirements of virginity, chastity, consent to private access as female bargain in marriage contract’ (52). It is only viewed in horror by men only if their wives or partners are raped by others! This is also one of the most crucial aspects that often serves as major weapon of vendetta as has been proved time and again in wars, inter-personal rivalry or tribal wars of previous era.
While constitution defines rape as ‘forcible penetration of vagina by penis, howsoever slight’, author has correctly interpreted it as heterosexual offence which undermines the dignity of women and significantly reduces the enormity of criminal act, carried by other means to degrade women’s sensibilities. The consent by victim has been construed as major element that gives a twisted slant to consensual agreement to sexual act and absolves rapist of the crime. Indeed, rape if proved still draws life sentences and in some states, even capital punishment but convictions have been few. The narrow definition of rape within the law has been responsible for low rate of reporting and even lower rate of conviction as violence against women’s body can be construed or perceived differently by the society and lawmen.
The gender equality was not an option in the olden times. The gender biases, enforced by the patriarchal society and supported by