The term is associated with the aspect of movement from one area to another, mainly from a high-class to a lower-class area of living. The following analysis of the gentrification process will focus on the social aspects of the term by discussing both the positive and negative effects of gentrification on the neighborhoods to which the movement occurs. This analysis is proof that the gentrification process haves both positive and negative social effects on downtown Toronto, and shows that the effects of gentrification process balance out eventually. The Concentric Zone model theory developed by Burgess is an applicable theory to the issue of gentrification, since the theory is an explanation of the urban growth process. According to Bunyi (2010), the concentric zone model theory was developed by Burgess and divides cities into social groups depending on their relative distance from the center of the city. The theory divides cities into circular zones, with the central business district in the innermost zone. For this paper, it is evident that the gentrification process occurs in the third zone of the concentric model; the zone occupied by poor quality housing individuals. From the concentric zone model, it can be deduced that individuals move out from the inner cycle and expand outwards to the less socially acceptable neighborhoods. An application of the concentric zone model theory can be done from the positive and negative social effects of the gentrification process described below. According to Lee, Slater and Wyly (2007), the gentrification process is usually evident in major cities in a country, and an analysis of the Canadian landscape indicates that the most affected cities are Toronto, Vancouver and Montreal. The researchers state that the factors responsible for the gentrification process in these cities are mainly due to the influx of richer members of the community in relatively poor parts of the cities, and from research, it can be identified that the main part of the richer community that causes gentrification is performing artists and businesspeople. The focus on gentrification is increased by many factors, whose indicators usually include the changing social status and commercialization of downtown areas of the cities identified. The literature used for this paper indicate that artist and performing parts of the population are the first causes of gentrification in urban areas, and they are ultimately replaced by business people in the areas that they encroach upon. This indicates that the gentrification process is a continuing process, with the first causes of gentrification being replaced by more affluent members of the community. Therefore, it can be deduced that the final result of the gentrification process is the formation of completely high-class neighborhoods in previously low class community regions. An analysis of prior research on the gentrification process has mostly been focused on two factors; the interaction between gender and ethnicity, a factor that has excluded the social impacts of the process (Teixeira, 2007). However, later research conducted has focused on the social impacts of the process, mainly focusing on the aspects of the process on the existing and new communities in an area (Atkinson, 2004). Some of the effects identified by researchers include the lack of affordable housing due to the whole
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