In the USA approximately half a million cases of elderly abuse are reported to authorities annually. However, millions of cases remain unreported (Agrawal, 2010).
Abuse of elders entails different forms. Certain abuse cases involve threats and intimidation of the elderly, while in some instances the elders are neglected by those responsible for their care. Also, certain abuse forms relate to financial chicanery. Physical abuse of elders entails non accidental application of force on an elderly person, which results in physical impairment, pain or injury. The physical abuse includes physical assault, confinement, restraint, and drug abuse. Sexual abuse also affects elders. The sex acts does not involve the elder’s consent; and includes physical sex acts, showing elderly individual pornography materials or acts, and forcing an elderly person to undress. Neglect by caregivers is another elders ‘abuse type; failure by the caregivers to perform obligations comprises majority of elder abuse cases. It can either be non intentional or intentional due to factors like denial or even ignorance on the caregivers’ side. Many elders also experience financial exploitation and fraud. This includes using the funds or property of the elders without permission or consent. This financial exploitation can be done by the caregivers or a scam artist. Unscrupulous caregivers may misuse the credit cards of the elder. Scan rackets targeting elders may engage in investment frauds. Healthcare abuse also affects the elders. This is conducted by unethical health practitioners. For example charging the elders for health services not delivered. The elders also undergo emotional abuse. This involves individuals handling the elderly in ways that results in physical distress; for example intimidating the elders through humiliation or ridicule (Partain, 2012).
Financial exploitation is increasingly becoming a major form of elder