It also provides numerous certification programs for recognizing qualified welding personnel and providing opportunities for utilizing their professionalism as well as qualification for the welding industry. The most important certification program of AWS is the Certified Welding Inspector (CWI) program which helps the organization in minimizing inspection costs as well as enhancing the superiority of weld (Province of Nova Scotia, 2012). The discussion emphasizes on the comparison of confined spaces with the recommendations made by a textbook of C. Ray Asfahl. Furthermore, comparison and contrast is made in terms of recommendations by AWS with that of another organization with regard to the contact with chromium and nickel in welding fumes. It will also emphasize on the hazards, exposure and control of thorium associated with Thoriated Tungsten Electrodes. Question 1: Confined Spaces A confined space is any space which is closed from all the sides bearing death risk as well as injuries due to hazardous substances. According to AWS, confined spaces have limited space as well as limited entry or exit along with poor ventilation system. It results in suffocation for less oxygen as well as accumulation of hazardous gases. The place where the hot works are to be conducted should be tested for the amount of oxygen required as well as the amount of hazardous gases and fumes emitted. The recommendations which are made by AWS are to check for ventilation as well as to ensure that the emission of gases as well as fumes do not exceed the safety level. It should also set up local as well as general exhaust ventilation for efficient ventilation along with improving the working atmosphere of confined spaces for people functioning in it. Steps should be taken to avoid equipment as well as persons who are not necessary for the confined space. The exit of the space should not be blocked by any equipment as in case of emergency rescuing people inside the confined space it will be beneficial. One should go into a confined space under the watch of a specialized person for rescue operation in case of crisis. There must be a constant communication with the people working inside the space for precaution. There should be means provided for turning off gas as well as power along with fuel in the confined space as well as exterior for safety measures (American Welding Society, 2009). According to the textbook by C. Ray Asfahl, confined space is distinguished as permit required and non-permit required. In a permit required confined space, there should be an alert of hazardous element entrant as well as there should be steps taken in controlling these hazards. A professional trained attendant is essential for the safety of confined space. The attendant should observe entrants who are authorized for working in it. In case of depletion of oxygen as well as on the emission of hazardous gases, the attendant should be able to take instantaneous preventive measures and provide aid. In a non-permit required confined space, there is no existence of hazardous components (Asfahl, 2003). Therefore, confined space has a limited area as well as deprived ventilation system, which requires effective measures to be taken for the people working in it. It should have proper ventilation for the reduction of hazardous gases as well as professionally trained personnel for keeping a watch on people working in it. Question 2: Chromium and Nickel in Welding Fumes In the welding process, the fumes which are
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American Welding Society Introduction American Welding Society (AWS) was established in the year 1919 with headquarters in Miami, United States of America. The objectives of the organization are to develop science as well as technology along with procedures related to welding…
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