Conversely, McRae (2003) argues that women’s position in the workplace must be considered in relation to a variety of disparate social constraints. This essay presents a critical assessment of these explanations of women’s patterns of participation in the labor force. One of the pervading areas of investigation in Hakim (2006) is the extent that there are fundamental differences between men and women that account for their oftentimes divergent patterns in the workplace. For the most part Hakim (2006, p. 280) contends, “They are not fundamental qualitative differences, as often argued in the past in order to entirely exclude women from ‘male’ occupations such as management, the military and the professions.” In this way the research is arguing that there are limited physiological differences that divide men and women in the workforce. Still, the authors indicate that there remain divergent patterns of participation based largely on women’s preferences. The belief that preference theory can account for inequalities in the workplace place is recognized as conflicting with some of the dominant feminist narratives. The author gives a prominent example from modern society, indicating that the gender disparity in certain jobs in the past had been attributed a lack of family-friendly benefits; however, recent research shows that family-friendly benefits did not account for this gender gap. Even though Hakim (2006) makes substantial claims that are supported by empirical evidence, there is also the recognition that the article merely functions to reframe the debate. In this way the research has shifted existential focus to the nature of the job as determining the type of person capable of success in this area. Even as it article argues against the effectiveness of creating family-friendly benefits, it notes that it is the very lack of these benefits that distinguishes male dominant professions from gender neutral professions. Ultimately it appears that the issue is more of an ethical question regarding the extent it is worth restructuring the labor market to enable equal participation by all citizens. While Hakim (2006) makes recourse to preference theory in articulating divergent patterns of gender participation in the labor market, McRae (2003) argues that these divergent patterns should be understood more in terms of social constraints. Specifically, this research implemented an empirical study that examined women’s workplace participation following the first birth of a child. Additionally it followed their workplace and sex role attitudes. The research specifically positions its investigation in contradistinction with Hakim’s explanation that implemented preference theory. In this way, the researchers argue that while preference theory can account for some tendencies in the workplace, it does not go far enough in accounting for workplace disparities. In these regards, the argument is made that preference theory considers women’s labor choices will be able regarding the sort of life style they wish to lead; McRae instead argues that women’s workplace choices, despite their preferences, will oftentimes be restricted by their working capacities. While McRae’s empirical research is established on valid principles, it appears that the divergent conclusion that are reached when compared with Hakim’s perspective is largely linked to the ways that the authors frame the debate. For
Cite this document
(“Critically assess Hakim's (2006) and McRae's (2003) explanations of Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.net/sociology/77093-critically-assess-hakimyies
(Critically Assess Hakim's (2006) and McRae'S (2003) Explanations of Essay)
“Critically Assess Hakim's (2006) and McRae'S (2003) Explanations of Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/sociology/77093-critically-assess-hakimyies.
Cited: 0 times
Critical Assessment While the 20th century witnessed considerable progress in terms of civil rights, most individuals recognize the country still has significant room to improve. While gay rights may have temporarily grasped the nation’s primary focus, women’s rights still remain a prevalent issue…
Research in this area draws itself from various disciplines of life; hence, it is no surprise that various perspectives have been offered in this regard by various researchers. The notion of sex differences is embedded in the Essentialist or, equivalently, the Social Constructionist view.
Workplace diversity incorporates things like gender, age, values, ethnicity, gamily obligations, intellectual and physical ability, sexual orientation, personality type, education level, physical appearance, experience, skills, ethnicity, cultural background etc.
The author focuses our attention on the effect of formal education on both fertility and labour force participation. It further accounts for the probable endogeneity of education. Women of today, particularly those in developed countries are now heading on the frontline; highly responsible leaders and managers in almost every industry.
Poverty encompasses a description of material need for a human being, of economic resources where the lack is in terms of income, wealth, some assets and other entitlements. Poverty is also the description of social needs such as a person being excluded from the
ial since it challenges conventional ideas which have been proposed by feminist writers and analysts as to why certain employment patterns persist for women (Arndt, 2003). While the theory has found a lot of support, it has also met with opposition therefore a balanced view of
This is principally on account of the fact that this Act does not define the term reprehensible behaviour, which is evidenced by bad character1. This leads to uncertainty.
As such, the 2003 Act was enacted to establish a new approach to
To secure for the workers by hand or by brain the full fruits of their industry and the most equitable distribution thereof that may be possible upon the basis of the common ownership of the means of production, distribution and exchange, and the best
There are a number of theoretical explanations of this phenomenon that help identify the various forces contributing to the gender segregation process. These theories can be classified into three: institutional, structural, and individual. This essay discusses these three
The author states that there has been a vast range of reasons that have led to the increase in women’s labor force participation. For instance, the rise and improvement of technology in the information era resulting into less time required for household chores, and changes in social and political attitudes among others.