The manipulation of these genes results in an altered from of organism and this practice is termed as genetic engineering. These genetically modified organisms can be microscopic bacterium, animals or even human beings and the modifications result in newly gained features or loss of any past qualities (Morgan 7). Genetic engineering has become a popular scientific practice and is incorporated in agriculture, biofuel production, human cells modifications, cattle reproduction, farming, antibiotic synthesis and other areas of industry and medicine. Different schools of thoughts exist in the scientific world regarding the outcomes of genetic engineering. Some consider this manipulation of life as a scientific achievement and the future of a successful and flourishing world. However, others view genetic engineering as a source of various health risks and against various ethics of life, medicine and religion. The history of genetics can be estimated 100 years back when the humans first considered the concept of genes and genomics. Gregor Mendel crosses the mind as the first person who introduced the importance of genes in the determination of traits and characteristics of the organisms. In 1913 genes word was used for the first time in the Dorland’s Medical Dictionary. Wilhelm Johanssen was the first who coined this term. In 2003 Lee Keekok proposed that the information and knowledge put forward by Mendel should be studied more and the investigations in this aspect should not be restricted or minimized. Watson and Crick put forward the double helix structure of the DNA thus laying the foundations for the genetic engineering we are familiar with today. By 1996, scientists in Great Britain had created the first cloned mammal, Dolly, the sheep. In 2001, the U.S. Congress banned all forms of human cloning. In 2002, cloning attempts on mice were attempted. In 2005, the Korean scientists claimed the creation of first cloned dog which they named as Snuppy (Herring 15-21, 31). Genetic engineering has thus developed remarkably both in terms of scientific advancements and political approval since the word “genes” was coined. Humans have always tried to improve the appearance of animals and plants for many years. Production of different types of crops and different breeds of cattle has been tried by farmers. But selective breeding has proved to be a slow and uncertain process with fewer benefits. Genetic engineering serves as a helping hand that helps in altering as required the particular genes of the animals or plants thus resulting in a new product with altered abilities and qualities. One important breakthrough is in the human and animal medicine. The insulin used for treating diabetes had been initially achieved from pigs which was not identical to human insulin. By employing genetic engineering, human protein can be manufactured and administered in diabetic patients. The gene for insulin is attained from the human chromosome, removed using cutting enzymes and then inserted into bacterial DNA. This altered bacterial DNA is inserted into bacterial cells which continue to grow the human insulin and can then be used for therapeutic purposes. The product obtained is pure and is also a cheap and effective method for getting insulin. However, problems of impurities like viruses in the newly obtained products are also an important issue, for instance, the growth hormone given to some
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Chris Glodde Mr. Berry Comparative Studies 367.02 22 May 2012 Genetic Engineering: A blessing or a catastrophe? Every living organism from the microscopic bacterium to large whales and the intellectually superior human beings, carry within themselves a set of instructions in the form of messages and codes in their genes…
Genetic Engineering (GE) is a methodology devised to manipulate or modify genes by altering their genetic code, all the way through artificial means generating transgene. The process differs from traditional selective breeding which differs from the natural selection process (Genetic Engineering: What is genetic Engineering?
By the process of genetics, the improvement of different varieties of plants and animals are possible. An even more highly-advanced technology of improving genetic qualities of agriculture called genetic engineering is as widely-used as simple-cross breeding of plants in order to bring together desirable traits.
eered foods, sometimes referred to as genetically modified, genetically engineered or transgenic crops, will be an essential element in meeting these challenging needs. The concept is not new but along with the increasing amount of bioengineered food appearing in the
The author states that selective breeding of animals have been done in the past. It is even referred in Bible that Jacob mated the two types of sheep to breed a new one, which was a success. This special knowledge was used with animals and plants to produce different kinds of species for enhancement of the productivity and quality of life.
ng is a science in which this genetic code is subject to various modifications and combinations or is transferred from one organism to another through artificial means that results in unique physical traits for the organism. Such modifications cannot occur by natural means and
Although the advantages of genetic engineering have been widely promoted by different groups, this paper attempts to show that genetic engineering is wrong and should be banned from the society. Research results and statics show that genetic engineering is harmful to
As such, human genetic engineering remains a highly controversial scientific aspect with wild expectations and media storms often eclipsing the truth. Borrowing from various secondary sources, this paper seeks to evaluate the arguments for and against human genetic engineering
use of its ability to violate a person’s freewill and eventually the fact that it can make humanity collapse while the proponents believe that it can save human race. According to Hodge, genetic engineering involves altering of genetic material to change trait or
The problems related to DNA-based tests include, not only that they are technically difficult, but also that they present a wide array of ethical dilemmas – in relation to their indications and their implications for the child being tested and their family. One of these ethics-related issues is the question of whether it is ethically right to test children genetically.
By studying twins, behavioural genetics researchers have attempted to unravel genetic and environmental factors human characteristics such as intelligence, sexuality and aggressiveness (Stearns, 2010).
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