The global Positioning system (GPS) is a space based, microwave, a 24 hour, all-weather, global military navigation system design, that is deployed, financed and managed by the U.S military authorities. Since the declaration of operation of GPS in 1993, it already had an impact on the art and practice of the forms of positioning and navigation…
The application of GPS for control survey (geodetic survey) was the first civilian use of GPS which was well beyond that for which GPS was originally intended by its military designers.
Today, GPS surveying techniques have completely replaced the other technologies such as Doppler satellite positioning and EDM as well for the traditional first and lower order control surveys. The adoption of GPS is not restricted to control survey applications only. It is now being used for cadastral, topographical and engineering surveying. The constraints are being aggressively addressed by the manufacturers, and it is predicted that GPS will shortly be used by the majority of surveyors and geomatic engineers.
An important objective is to dispel the myths and incorrect perceptions of the capabilities and shortcomings of the technology. This is the result of people that are bewildered by the increasing GPS terminology. It is necessary to distinguish between the "GPS navigation" techniques based on the relatively imprecise pseudo-range observations and the GPS surveying techniques specifically developed for precise positioning applications. In addition to the specialist technology of GPS surveying, the sub categories of the conventional GPS surveying as well as the modern GPS surveying will be covered in these area. The contributions to the increasing popularity of GPS has been the evolution precise of GPS surveying from a difficult, expensive and complicated technology that could only be used in the so-called "static" mode to a technique that has a remarkable flexibility, including the fact that it is being used in the kinematic mode. This increases the number and range of applications that can be addressed by the GPS technology. It is necessary to understand the fundamental principles of the GPS operational procedures.
Survey Results done at the National Watersports Centre, Holme, Pierrepont, Nottingham.
At the site, it was necessary to measure the length of the rowing lake. It is also very necessary to make suitable adjustments and error correction. To establish a base station was the first thing to do, and the need to record the end of the lake using GPS Total Station equipment. Checking the measurements done for the earlier activity must also be included in the field data gathering.
As any other surveying activity, The principal steps in surveying activity was followed in the data gathering. GPS Total Station was the instrument used. A station was set on a corner point, and it was assigned station A. The instrument was set on point A. Point B was also established at the other corner of the lake. At point A, shots were taken on point A. The horizontal distance from point A to point B was measured and recorded. Setting the instrument at due south, the horizontal angle from point a to point B was taken, as well as the vertical angle of point A to point B. The instrument was transferred and set at point B. A shot was taken from point B to point A to check the distance from point B to point A. Point A was given a shot from point B for the checking of the horizontal angles and the vertical angles as well. At point C, the same procedure was done. This time, from point C, Shots were taken at point A and B. This procedure was done to check the data that was earlier recorded at points A and B. At point D, the last station that was established, The ...
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Firstly, a rational man is known to believe that the universe had a beginning. Secondly, galaxies appear to be moving away from us at a speed which is proportional to their distance. This observation goes hand in hand with the expansion of the universe and suggests that the universe was once compacted (Delsemme, 1998).
The surveys are consistently accurate to the sub centimetre level. When the GPS base is established on a known latitude and longitude, and if post processing is applied to the base station, standardized coordinates for GIS mapping is provided, or any other application that requires coordinates based on latitude and longitude, UTM zone, State Plane Zone, or any of the standard zones and map projections.
In the United Kingdom, hydrography has a long history since the British were always a sea-faring nation with easy access to the sea and with little alternative for trade and commerce with other nations than by the sea. King Charles 2 appointed Captain Grenville Collins as the 'Hydrographer to the King' as far back in time as 1683 (Mason, 2007).
The purpose of which is it can operate in any kind of weather, it has a non-stop operation which means it can operate 24 hours and is always available anywhere. It has also a very economical use, it increases productivity, customer service is improved and the accuracy (3-D data, Velocity timing) is not a question.
The Iraq Kuwait War had a combination of conflicts and had started from the independence of Iraq in 1932. Iraq refused to accept Kuwait as a separate nation till 1963. Iraq claimed that Kuwait was a part of Ottoman Empire in 18th
“The technology operates on the principle of triangulation—if the difference from an observer to three known points can be measured, the position of the observer can be calculated” (“Global Positioning System”). The US government maintains the GPS and the system can be accessed by anyone who has a GPS receiver.
The facility in this case is currently being used in accordance to its use and this therefore means that improvements in the property will help in increasing the usefulness and the functionality to the public.
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