Applied Systems Theory

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Any object (or subject) in the world can be considered as a system and any non-elementary object as a set of interdependent parts has systemic features. Any complex system can be analyzed with usage of the variety of approaches and techniques. There are several key approaches (the hard, soft and failures approaches) to system modelling and systems engineering.


These mixed approaches must be relevant for analysis of appropriate (i.e. mixed) classes of systems. Therefore, to disclose possibilities and possible disadvantages of such integral view on systems modelling, we need to consider several examples of mixed systems. Are they exist in the real world What about its properties and features Is such way of generalization in systems modelling just artless composing of existing approaches without principal innovations Or we can expect more efficiency of such generalizations
First of all, we need to note that the gap between the hard and soft approaches is more impenetrable then the gap between these ones and the failures approach. This is caused by obvious differences between hard and soft classes of systems. Indeed, hard systems are useful for problems that can justifiably be quantified. Suitable approaches involve numerical simulations and often use the techniques of operations research. Such approaches cannot easily take into account unquantifiable variables, e.g. opinions, and may treat people as being passive, rather than having complex motivations. On the contrary, soft system models are usable for systems that cannot easily be quantified. ...
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