Fluid flow can be observed in the flow of gases in pipes, in the Universe, flow of air around the wings of an aircraft, etc. and flow of liquids in pipes, the ocean, flow of blood in blood vessels, etc. and can be studied under various categories like Aerodynamics and Hydrodynamics. Usually these fluids flow inside or around a solid surface and both exert pressure on each other thus making it important to study the flow under the influence of these forces. And when forces are involved, the law of conservation of linear momentum, law of conservation of mass and law of conservation of energy can be applied to study the behaviour of the fluids.
Properties of the fluid in relation to time and space can be studied to know how they behave under certain circumstances. This knowledge about the behaviour of fluids can be applied in various fields to design and develop systems involving fluids. However, the behaviour of fluids depends on the characteristics of the fluid, the speed of the fluid and the shape of the solid surface in or around which it flows.
The three characteristics of the fluid like the viscosity, density and compressibility are important to study fluid behaviour. ...
Here the relations between the three determining properties are to be studied in order to understand the behaviour of the fluids. The mathematical equations that govern the relationship between these three properties involve complex processing and the use of computers becomes imperative for the study.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is the branch of fluid mechanics that deals with the study of the behaviour of fluids with the help of a computer. CFD is therefore used to analyze and predict the behaviour of fluids under complex conditions. These predictions are further used to provide solutions to various complex and practical problems in different industries. The reason for the importance of CFD becomes more evident as numerical equations governing the relationship between the three properties, density, viscosity and compression in space and time have to be solved to a greater detail. The fluid flow itself has to be simulated and the numerical methods have to be applied to understand how the fluids interact with the surroundings. Also, a lot of iterations are made during the simulation of the fluid flow which can be only possible with the help of a computer where for every simulation; the numerical methods of computing are simplified.
The application of numerical methods for computing and the further synthesis of the results can be applied to determine the time taken for a storm or a hurricane to reach a specific point on land and its wind speed, the shape of the aircraft wing and the force required by it to move at a particular altitude, the speed of fuel in the pipelines so that too much heat is not produced, weather conditions, speed of flow of blood in blood