Empirical research into language use shows that there exists a wide gap between language use among children from well up families and those from economically disadvantaged families. Most children from disadvantaged families have low phonemic skill awareness compared to those from well up families. The purpose of this research is to identify ways in which the problem of phonemic awareness among children from poor background. The research will use a sample of 50 students from whom phonemic awareness skills will be evaluated. To provide credible conclusions and recommendations, this research will take a quantitative approach. Previous Research Phonemic awareness is a topic that has garnered a lot of attention among researchers in the recent past, owing to the persistent language problem that has indicated phonemic awareness weakness among many students in institutions. Dickinson and McCabe (2004) researched on the existence of phonological problems among children with a bilingual orientation. The deduction of this statistical survey is that there indeed exist numerous factors that contribute to weakness in language among these students. Among these factors, Dickinson and McCabe (2004) identified that the standards of living played a key role in determining the success of language learning among children. Although this research was not directly designed on measurement of poverty levels, it was possible to outline the link between educated parents and a better economic social status (Koutsoftas, Harmon & Gray, 2009). The major conclusion of this research was that children who were fostered by learned parents had a better phonemic expression. Nichols et al (2004) found that Latino children and children from low socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to fail to develop phonemic awareness and concepts in print owing to the fact that they lack preschool experience, causing them to lag behind when compared to children from different ethnicities and better socioeconomic backgrounds. Latino children are at risk because English is not their first language meaning that they will categorize phonemes in their primary language as that is how their linguistic minds are programmed. Children from these categories are seen to either lack the prior knowledge or misunderstand the instructional discourse, along with the language of the text and teacher, resulting in delayed acquisition of crucial concepts that are in print (McGee & Ukrainetz, 2009). Notably also, findings from this study indicated that gender was not linked to development of phonemic awareness. These students require instructional intervention that looks into their needs and in a broader perspective. McDowell et al (2007) found that children, who undergo early reading challenges, receive less practice than other children, miss opportunities to develop reading comprehension strategies and are likely to have a negative attitude towards reading. Callaghan and Madeleine (2012) attributed the difference in phonemic awareness between children from low socio-economic backgrounds and their peers from high or middle socio-economic backgrounds to varying levels of emergent literacy. This variability is in turn explained by previous home environments, level of oral language and provision of good early intervention programs. In contrast, Neuman and Dickinson (2011) suggest that genetic predispositions
Low Phonemic Awareness Skills among Disadvantage Families Name: Course: Tutor: College: Date: Low Phonemic Awareness Skills among Disadvantage Families Introduction Phonemic awareness is a core part of language skills that determines the fluency of communication among learners of language…
(Be certain that the research question relates to the topic.) A study conducted by Allen and Seaman (2011) showed an increase in the number of academic institutions that provide training for faculty who design faculty online courses – the percentage of this increase went from 81% in 2009 to 94% in 2011.
The situation is very common in most other Asian Airports. The Airport Technology (2010) for instance reports that “during the winter, Delhi’s Indira Gandhi International Airport (IGIA) is enveloped in dense fog for an average of ten to 15 days each time.” Such foggy weather conditions reduce visibility, causing low visibility in airports.
The housing demand is one of the most important issues and challenges which are facing developing and developed countries and both of them have tried to solve and face their housing demands by different policies. Some of the policies and proposals have met the needs of the different levels of society.
The inherited trait plays an important role in the leadership skill of an individual (Changing Minds.org, 2011). The trait is needed to be within the person in order to be a successful leader in the business. The adaptive nature of the individual and being alert to the environmental changes is very important for any leader.
34). To remedy this situation, the hospital could implement two changes: either decrease demand or increase the service. This paper will push for changes to the reduction of demand for services on the hospital. The first change that can be made in order to achieve this is by educating patients to use preventive medicine.
The schools are started in partnership with the parents, teachers and students to create an environment in which everyone including the parents can be more involved in the learning process, the tutors or the teachers are given the freedom to be innovative in the learning process and the learners are provided with the basic framework or structure they need to learn, with all three factors that is the parent, teacher and the student held accountable for improved student achievement or performance (Hoy and DiPaola, 2008).
The exuberance that is brought about by their youthful age combined with the influence of their peers results in a large level of risk for these students to engage in behaviour that could be injurious to them or those around them (Berkowitz et al, 1978). This could be in terms of physical, emotional or psychological harm (McGuire and Priestley 1995).
Regardless of widespread measures to encourage an early/ timely detection of breast cancer, estimations reveal that 20 to 30 percent of women hang around for a period of 3 months prior to seeking help from an allied health professional (AHP), for the symptoms of breast cancer (Heisey et al., 2011).
Chinese society is born of long-standing cultural values related to the Confucian era, in which hedonistic self-gratification is present, where collectivist values are nurtured and respected, and where social in-group affiliation and reputation protection are considered important constructs of the Chinese lifestyle.
Doganis defines low-cost airlines as airlines ‘’ that modeled themselves as Southwest’’. However, Shaw defines it as ‘’airlines which are able to deliver the product basics of frequency and punctuality, but which do not offer luxurious seating and high level of provision of food, drinks, and in-flight entertainments.
48 pages (12000 words)Dissertation
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