Howard Gardener challenged the notion that human intelligence was a single entity which is inherited from parents and it can be measured using the IQ intelligence test method. After several research studies he published the Theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI) in the book…
that are of value in a culture.” (Gilman, 2001) Gardener, a psychologist and a professor of education, determined through a series of research experiments that there are about 7 primary intelligences and humans can exhibit one, two or a maximum of three intelligences but it is quite rare to exhibit all the forms. As a result of further research Gardener and his colleagues have stated that there could be an addition of another 3 possible intelligences to the initial list of seven (Smith, 2002, 2008). The presence of one kind of intelligence is determined from several perspectives or criteria which were drawn from several fields such as biology, logical reasoning and various psychological factors. With this he concluded that every child whether normal, mentally or physically challenged will have their unique set of intelligences in which they will shine and both teachers and parents will have to employ a broad range of learning methods in order to identify the strengths and weaknesses of a child. Thus with his research on multiple intelligences Gardener sought to bring about a change in the system of learning with focus on the inherent abilities and interest of a child so that they will be able to pursue their interests and not succumb to external factors such as peer pressure (What are Multiple Intelligences? n.d).
Howard Gardener in his theory of Multiple Intelligences stresses that human intelligence is much more than a mere testing of one’s IQ. Through his initial experiments, Gardener formulated about seven intelligences, each of which was determined based on a set of defined criteria and with the ability to solve problems genuinely as a prerequisite. The criteria for deciding on the candidate intelligences in an individual include: the potential for brain isolation by brain damage, presence of an evolutionary history or possibility, a set of identifiable core operations, susceptibility to encoding, distinct developmental progression in which there is a ...
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The study discusses the process and its importance to gaining and obtaining of new knowledge in the contemporary society compared with other learning methods applicable in knowledge acquisition. Differentiated instruction is the best method of acquiring and providing new knowledge to all students and pupils despite of intellectual ability of the pupil or student.
Teachers are under more pressure than ever to create within their curriculum the ability to teach differentially. This ability for an educator to improve the learning of children is based on their abilities as a teacher. According to the U. S. Department of Education’s 26th Annual Report to Congress on IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 2004) in 2005, around 96% of all teachers have students in their classrooms that have some form of learning disability.
According to Lazear (2003), the theory has the capability of improving theoretical knowledge, cultivating constructive attitudes toward learning and instruction, boost involvement or participation and satisfaction in classrooms, and build more reliable learning experiences.
The theory holds that the tradition understanding of intelligence which is based on I.Q. testing is limited in describing the intelligence of individuals. According to Gardner (2006) the multiple intelligence theory is a diversion form tradition I.Q. view of intelligence which is psychometric and defines intelligence as a person’s ability to provide accurate answers to intelligence tests.
n.d; Smith, 2002, 2008). According to Gardener, intelligence can be defined as “a biopsychological potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that are of value in a culture.” (Gilman, 2001) Gardener, a psychologist and a professor of education, determined through a series of research experiments that there are about 7 primary intelligences and humans can exhibit one, two or a maximum of three intelligences but it is quite rare to exhibit all the forms.
It is imperative that leaders comprehend the crucial nature of differentiation (Bista & Glasman, 1998). This is lest they fall victim to misunderstanding, which stem from the lack of an intuitive nature to curb issues that always arise. By tailoring the different functions to meet the desires present, one gets to understand an individual’s nature.
Gardner’s theory renders the conventional means of judging an individual’s intelligence by means of specific IQ tests meaningless in that they are only a tool to measure one or two of the numerous shades of