e main reason why there is a difficulty in the United States educational reform is because the reforms have failed in changing the conditions of learning and teaching for the teachers and students (Elmore, 2004). He adds that the failure has been caused by lack of establishment of accountability frameworks, lack of support for teachers in analyzing their practices and lack of continuous learning across and within schools.
The chapter is relevant to the district roles in supporting and leading reforms in the system-wide education. Elmore mentions several times that most education reforms fail to get their teaching instructional core. He demonstrates that the legislation of “No Child Left Behind” brings more pressure on reform, but does not bring focus that would be essential for classroom reforms. He also has a compelling argument regarding internal accountability as a core factor that promotes external accountability (Elmore, 2004). Therefore, it means that for the occurrence of internal accountability, there must be necessary capacities such as the focus of workload complexity, school reforms, community and parent relationships and finally student and school ...Show more