Culture and innovation 3 2.1 Definition of culture 3 2.2 Cultural influence on innovation 4 3. Own teaching situation 6 3.1 Classroom culture in Japan: realities in the classroom 6 3.2 MEXT's Top-down drastic reforms 7 4. Importance of considering culture and the need for innovation 7 4.1 Importance of culture for ELT innovation in Japanese secondary English education 8 4.2 Why Japan needs such a drastic innovation in English education 8 5. Suggestions for successful implementation of ELT innovation in Japan 8 5.1 Milder implementation of CLT 9 5.2 Adaptation not adoption 9 5.3 Intercultural competency 10 5.4 Reformation of yakudoku 10 6. Conclusion 11 References 12 Appendix 14 List of Figures Figure 1: Resistance to culturally incompatible ELT innovations 4 List of Tables Table 1: High and low context cultures 5 Abbreviations used ALT Assistant Language Teacher CLT Communicative Language Teaching ELT English Language Training ESL English as a Second Language JET Japanese Exchange and Teaching (Programme) JTE Japanese Teacher of English MEXT Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (of Japan) 1. Introduction Japan has been going through a period of major reforms in English language education over the past two decades with the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) attempting to promote the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) methodology. ...
In the 1989 guidelines, it was declared that the development of students' communicative abilities in English was to become the focus of English language education in Japan (MEXT, 1989). The latest reforms in 2008 introduced more drastic reforms favouring the adoption of CLT and instructing Japanese teachers to teach English by using only English in class. This innovation is set to be implemented in senior high schools in April 2013 (MEXT, 2008). CLT is now widely accepted as a dominant methodology in second/foreign language teaching in the West. But when imported into non-Western countries such as Japan, it has caused confusion and led to resistance by teachers and students alike. As with many other East Asian countries, Japan now faces a big challenge in implementing CLT in actual classrooms (Littlewood, 2007). White (1995: 118) asserted that if innovators take the beliefs, values and history of the surrounding culture into deeper consideration then the positive innovation they propose can usually stand a better chance at long-term acceptance. The discussion of the significance of culture in implementing innovation in English language education in this paper begins with defining culture and describing the characteristics of Japanese culture using the high-low context culture framework developed by Hall (1976). The writer's own teaching experience at a senior high school English class in Japan is then described to provide insight into classroom realities in Japan and the impact of MEXT's reforms. This is followed by an analysis of the cultural influence on innovation and a discussion of how and why culture is an important consideration in English language education in Japan. It is hoped that the suggestions made thereafter will
Japan has been going through a period of major reforms in English language education over the past two decades with the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) attempting to promote the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) methodology. …
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Literature Review Organizational Learning Types of Organizational Learning Stages of Organizational Learning Facilitators of Organizational Learning Factors Inhibiting Organizational Learning The Community College Setting 4. Methodology Qualitative Research Theoretical Perspective Research Design Population and Setting Participants Access and Entry Data Collection Data Analysis 5.
d Interview 14 2.4 Research Ethics 14 Chapter 3 - Literature Review 15 3.1 Theoretical Framework 15 3.2 Cultural Dimensions 16 3.3 Impact of National Culture on Management Style 18 3.4 Cultural Differences between UK and Iran 19 3.5 Overview of the Construction Industries of Iran and UK 21 3.5.1 UK construction Industry 21 3.5.2 Iranian Construction Industry 22 3.6 Influence of Culture on the Management Style of Construction Industry 23 3.7 Summary 23 Chapter 4 – Case Study 24 4.1 Case Study: Management Style in Company A (UK construction Industry) 25 4.2 Case Study: Management Style in Company B (Iran construction Industry 26 Chapter 5 – Presentation and Discussion (Literature Review and
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40 pages (10000 words)Dissertation
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