After the model was imported to ALGOR FEA the log was checked to ensure that there were no import errors or missing geometry. Then a fixed boundary condition was applied to the internal surface of the larger cylinder after which a normal force of 500 N was applied to the internal surface of the smaller cylinder. The application of a fixed boundary condition to one area of the model meant that the model was constrained from moving within that axis of rotation or translation. The model could either rotate on the longitudinal axis of the constrained cylinder or it could translate in either three directions (x, y and z). Implementing a fixed boundary condition indicates that the model is unable to move in any direction at all. Generally a fixed boundary condition can be considered analogous to a welded piece that is unable to move but can bend or flex under applied force. Though this may not simulate the actual conditions one on one (where the crank actually rotates though it does not translate at all), but it does provide a satisfactory numerical investigation model. Furthermore the application of a normal force to the other cylinder’s internal surface indicates the application of normal average force when the crank will be in use. This application of force assumes that the pin attached to the smaller cylinder of the crank will be able to transmit the applied force at the pedal completely and uniformly all across the surface of the cylinder and that this force will be normal to the provided surface. However practically this is not going to be possible as the pin will bear some kind of clearance to ensure free rotation and the clearance in turn will mean that the pin will contact the cylinder non-uniformly. Moreover the pin’s contact will produce a normal force at areas with complete contact while they will produce slightly skewed forces where the cylinder only partially contacts the subject surface. This method of applying a force to the model is non ideal yet the approximation is tolerable enough because what will take place inside the cylinder is similar. Any differences in force will not be very significant so using normal force’s application is a viable technique. The model was given a material of Steel 4130 which was present in the software’s library. After this the model was meshed using default settings. After meshing the model was simulated for calculating the developed stress and for the FOS (factor of safety) calculations. The results for the first run are shown below. The mesh was redefined for element size (which was lowered) although the mesh was still based on a 4 point Jacobian approach. The newly meshed model was then simulated in order to see the effects of a changed mesh size on the numerical investigation. The results from the re-meshed run are shown below. The results above clearly indicate that the stress distribution levels and the FOS distribution did not change at all indicating that the previous mesh control was providing a mesh independent solution. Therefore for the purpose of this analysis and optimisation the previous mesh controls were re-implemented as a mesh independent solution had been achieved. The results above clearly show that the lowest FOS is very high which indicates a rather overdesigned scenario. The current situation dictates that the FOS ought to be around 3:1 for a viable design. In order to achieve a more suitable FOS the design was optimised for a
The design was produced using SolidWorks 2010. The larger cylinder was created as an extruded boss with the initially provided dimensions. After this the smaller cylinder was created using an extruded boss with the provided dimensions. The connecting section was created using an extruded boss as well with the dimensions provided…
Challenge to the determination of the density of an irregular solid is poised to its non-conformity to the any three-dimensional object that are used in the functional determination of the volume of natural and synthetic three dimensional objects. An irregular object falls outside the circular, ellipse, triangular, square, and rectangular or sphere basic units used in the mathematical computation of object.
According to the essay, gly has a vast pK range and can be covalently linked to the resin at any pH value. Glu has quite acidic isoelectric point (pI) (= 3.1), and for all reactions in aqueous solutions (Boc and DCCD derivatization) it is required to keep pH close to 3.0. Once Glu is linked, Lys has very alkaline pI (= 9.8).
able membrane or tubing that has properties of cellulose and cellophane membranes; thus, the membrane is vital in investigating the properties of real cell membranes. Moreover, it perfectly responds to water as a solvent. Notably, the movement of these materials depended on the
There are several laboratory tests more often performed in order to determine different characteristics of soils. These characteristics are important when it comes to designing the foundation and earth structures. This paper focuses on
e strains measurements by use of specific strain gages within a cantilever beam, measurement of the beam’s deflection using LPDT, comparison of both experimental and analytical values of the cantilever beam stress, statistical presentation of values, as well as the aspect of
For example, when the volume was 15 liters, the jet momentum was 4.02739519 Kgm/s2. When the volume reduced by 5 liters, jet momentum also was reduced to 2.26211127Kgm/s2. This was seen in all the three vanes. The force on the vane also decreased at the same time.
The three experiments carried out by the author are of significant importance in chemistry, especially the application of new technologies incorporated within them. In this first experiment, the synthesis and characterization of ruthenium complex, the Ruthenium compound will be characterized by UV-Vis, spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry.