Sister Callista Roy is a highly respected nurse theorist, writer, lecturer, researcher, and teacher. She defined nursing knowledge through her theory "Roy Adaptation Model" which is regarded as rich source of knowledge for clinical nursing. In this assignment, this theory will be critically analyzed to examine whether this theory has provided an expanded, value-based concept of adaptation.Adaptation is a popular and long-standing term in nursing. It is used most frequently to capture a central concern of the discipline: an individual's adjustment to an illness, a disability, or health problem. People, both individually and in groups, according to this theory are viewed as holistic adaptive systems, with coping processes acting to maintain adaptation and to promote transformations at the personal and environmental levels. The coping processes are broadly described within the regulator and cognitive subsystems for the individual, and the stabilizer and innovator subsystems for groups. Through these coping processes, persons considered as holistic adaptive systems interact with the internal and external environment, transform the environment, and are transformed by it (Johnson & Webber, 2005, 207-233).As evident from this theory, this model has been proposed in a simple manner that is easily comprehensible by any reader interested in nursing theories. The concepts are clear that flow through a process of reasoning. The components have been derived from both literature and clinical practice, and any practitioner identifies herself and her practice with the theory in no time. The modes and outcomes of adaptations were named by the classification of the incidents of behaviors of the patients as encountered in clinical practice.
It seems that this adaptation theory provides a possible structural and conceptual framework for nursing that could possibly be used to develop more integrated curriculum, to serve as a theoretical basis for nursing practice, and to provide clues for improvement of patient care. It is clear that this theory presents a broad conception of human phenomena that helps the nursing profession to understand the biological, psychological, and social functioning of a human being in different changing contexts in health and disease (Johnson & Webber, 2005, 207-233).
Adaptation is a term that has been used predominantly at the individual client level in nursing; it also has been employed at family and population levels and in the practice domain to address issues regarding the adaptability of nurses. According to Roy, the human system has the capacity to adjust and adapt effectively and efficiently to changes the environment and to change the environment according to the needs of adaptation. Thus, it can be viewed as a process where human biologic systems receive stimuli from the environment, and these inputs are internally processed through feedback mechanisms, and the results are either adaptive or ineffective behaviors. These lead to either effective or ineffective coping respectively ((Johnson & Webber, 2005, 151-154).
Over years, it has been observed that the nursing science has evolved toward caring with an emphasis on the totality of the human being. These ideological changes in nursing practice indicate that health is considered as a state where individual react with environment continuously and consistently. If nursing is associated with human health, therefore, it needs to consider the environmental factors with due weightage. According to Roy, adaptation is influenced by integration of the person with the environment, and time influences the process of adaptation. These adaptations are related, in turn, to perception. From the propositions of this theory, the nursing assessment and intervention should identify and manage "input to adaptive system." This sets the stage for the goals of nursing interventions in all spheres, since if based on this theoretical model, the