[Name of Student] [Name of Lecturer] Philosophy 103 [Date] William Clifford's Theory versus William James' Theory Introduction William Clifford and William James are two among the most widely studied philosophers in the academic and professional spheres. Although their works cover a wide range of subjects such as emotions and beliefs, certain differences are easily identified in their works…
In his work entitled “The Ethics of Belief”, Clifford highlighted two core reasons he felt beliefs are not just peoples’ private business (Kessler, p. 324). This stance on beliefs courted as many enemies and friends for Clifford as people opposed and supported his notions in equal measure. “The Ethics of Belief” sought to emphasize the principles of his feelings about beliefs. However, the central issues in this essay, like in most other essays he wrote on belief, was to show that it is wrong for a person to accept or believe in or about things without supporting and considerable evidences (Kessler, p. 324). In fact, it is Clifford’s notions and principles, which are considered the principles on which modern scientific reasoning is based. The main reason Clifford asserts that beliefs are not personal businesses is the fact that one’s beliefs affect others in society. ...
The other strong argument fronted by Clifford is that believing things on poor or flimsy grounds makes a person and society vulnerable to believe in falsehood, which may then be transferred to the larger family or society (Kessler, p. 324). On the contrary, in 1896, William James conducted a lecture entitled “The Will to Believe”. In essence, this lecture sought to counter Clifford’s assertion that beliefs should be based on significant evidences. That is, James felt that beliefs need not be based on prior evidences of truth (Kessler, p. 324). The lecture by James is largely regarded as being defensive of religious faith, which is often seen to lack evidence of truth. The central argument in this lecture was that the initial adoption of beliefs should form the basis of accessing truth and ascertaining whether evidences exist for the beliefs in question (Kessler, p. 324). For instance, according to James, one may believe in his ability to execute a given task, if such a task requires one to be confident. In fact, James opines that even scientific inquiries are based on first believing that something exists without first having significant evidence. Thus, for James, like one may believe in his or her ability to accomplish a task, religious belief may be rational if a person initially lacks evidence of the truth of the belief (Kessler, p. 324). However, James’ theory gives room for situations in which it is not entirely clear whether one is likely to lose or gain truth. That is, by not making up one’s mind, one may save himself or herself by throwing away the chance of gaining the truth about a belief (Kessler, p. 324). These scenarios are those in which one is not often forced to choose between believing falsehood and truth ...
Cite this document
(“Philosphy 103 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.net/philosophy/102184-philosphy
(Philosphy 103 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words)
“Philosphy 103 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/philosophy/102184-philosphy.
The paper, however, also brings forward the contrary point of view of Leiser who thinks that the Death Penalty is not against the intrinsic human value as discussed by Kant. The paper will develop its own understanding by placing both point of views historically and concludes that Kantian conception can not be taken a-historically, i.e., as an abstract ideal.
This work entails the forces, causes, effects and other aspects of Lepanto battle. The Sultan of Ottoman declared Jihad to the Christian community, majorly Catholics. History records that the war was at its peak in July, 1571, during which the Holy league was led by Don John from Austria.
One of the most notable and controversial assertions and the subject of this paper was his claiming that one cannot entirely depend on their senses to provide true information about their surroundings. This naturally elicited many criticisms especially from empiricists who held that the primary source of true knowledge was sensory experience.
Throughout the known world, some form of the Golden Rule was a part of the general religious code for a great many of the people. The idea that the Golden Rule is a recognized factor in most of the world’s religions was stated by the 1993 Parliament of the World’s religions in a signed statement called Towards a Global Ethic: Initial Declaration.
However, Socrates made efforts to reach the same truth and his thinking process was similar as compared to the revelations of Jesus.
Most of the human beings ‘are interested in the news of the day and problems of the hour.’
There are though naturally many who would disagree. There are many people who simply believe art is just a diversion or an amusement. It is a question of the relative legitimacy of the role that art plays
The marriage relationship of Edward and Sarah is strained, and the Mayan ruins symbolize what remains of their marriage. In order to find a solution to their plight, both go on a vacation to Mexico with the hope that something tangible and