Hobbes’ views of the theory were laid down against the backdrop of the Civil War in 1665 in his magnum opus, ‘Leviathan’ meaning sea monster. According to Hobbes, society was extremely gloomy at the time and an individual lived a life which was ‘solitary, nasty, brutish, poor, short.’ Thus, he stated that for an individual to get out of such a condition, it was necessary to establish an absolute monarchy by way of the social contract so that the monarch power could take control of the state and provide the individuals with some sort of solace. John Locke on the other hand, preached that constitutional monarchy was necessary and people came together to form the social contract because they wanted to establish a judiciary and so that they could live by the laws and regulations settled by the same judicial power. The state was thus given the entire right to protect the rights of the individuals. However, in Hobbes’ case, it was the king that was the sovereign individual that would rule over the land and would have its command habitually obeyed by the people. In Locke’s case however, people would have their own freedom because they would form a democratic polity by way of coming together. Governance in both cases is about controlling the nature of the state that prevailed at the time in order to bring about a sense of clarity and order in the way by which people lived. However, it must be understood that governing a state does not only involve controlling the bad aspects of the state. The state is formed by people because they require a singular authority to tell them how to behave in different situations. This might not necessarily only include the bad aspects because the state also controls the good nature of the human beings. Governance is thus about both because the state is the sovereign power that has a hold over the safety and security of its citizens. Since it is a sovereign authority or command of the sovereign, it is being obeyed by the people and thus it becomes the function of the state to ensure that whatever it is that people are obeying is for their betterment or societal welfare. Therefore, the state must have controlled power in order to protect the citizens because otherwise since it is a sovereign command, it might get overthrown as was seen in the French Revolution, when Rousseau stated his theory of the social contract. Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr preached the use of non violence as opposed to Malcolm X. Malcolm X was an African American Muslim minister and human rights activist who indicted white racists against their qualms towards the black people. He used self defence as a weapon against those that had terminated his dreams of living a peaceful life. Non violent resistance can be an effective tool for social change because it teaches people how to listen to things with a calm mind and not get violent or irritated about whatever is happening around oneself. Being non violent is not a very easy task and Gandhi and Luther both preached the same to people and told them that cowards will never be able to take on the path of non violence. Only when people are willing to listen to each other with a calm mind and come up with solutions without beating each other up or resorting to violent methods, will they be able to muster enough courage to bring about social change. Gandhi practised non violence with farmers of Champaran Bihar where he first asked them to quietly resist the British on the Indigo plantations by
Name 15 November 2011 Assignment The Social Contract Theory states that individuals came together in order to form a contract by way of which they could form a union of a State under the rules of which they could live together in peace by maintain order and stability…
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