StudentShare solutions
Triangle menu

Biological molecules - Essay Example

Nobody downloaded yet
The two strands of the helix run in opposite directions (1 "up" and 1 "down"). The inner edges of the helices are formed by the nitrogenous bases and they run in pairs. Adenine pairs with thymine with 2 hydrogen bonds and cytosine pairs with guanine with 3 hydrogen bonds (Murray et al, 2007).
DNA is present in the chromosomes of most of the living beings. The human genome approximately has 3 billion base pairs of DNA which are arranged in the 23 pairs of chromosomes. Sequence pieces of DNA form genes which carry vital information. The genetic information is achieved by complementary base pairing. Transmission, transcription and translation are the steps involved in transmission of genetic information. Currently, DNA is used in the field of genetic engineering for the treatment of many diseases (Murray et al, 2007).
RNA or ribonucleic acid is similar to DNA except that it is single stranded and the sugar present in it is ribose sugar. RNA consists of repeating units of nucleotides which are made up of a nitrogenous base, a ribose sugar and a phosphate. The pyramidines are guanine and cytosine and the purines are adenine and uracil. RNA is transcribed from DNA by the enzyme called RNA polymerase. There are basically 2 types of RNA: coding RNAs and non-coding RNAs. Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a coding RNA. There are many non-coding RNAs. These include ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA) and others.

Functions:
mRNA carries information from DNA to the ribosome which is the site of synthesis for proteins. The amino acid sequence in the protein is based on the coding sequence of the mRNA. tRNA and rRNA are involved in the process of translation. Many other non-coding RNAs are involved in RNA processing, gene regulation, catalysis of chemical reactions, cutting and ligation of other RNA molecules, catalysis of peptide bond formation in the ribosomes and other roles (Murray et al, 2007).

Carbohydrates
Structure:
Carbohydrates are organic compounds that are either ketones or aldehydes with many hydroxyl groups added. These hydroxyl groups are added one on each carbon atom that is not a part of either the aldehyde or the ketone group. Thus the general formula of a carbohydrate can be designated as (C'H2O)n. Here n is any number greater than 3. There are many carbohydrates like uronic acids and fucose which don't have this formula in their structure. Also, all chemicals which have this structure do not fall into the category of carbohydrates. The basic carbohydrate units are monosaccharides. These are further classified based on the number of carbon atoms, the placement of the carbonyl group and the chiral handedness. Monosaccharides with the carbonyl group aldehyde are known as aldoses, those with carbonyl group ketone are known as ketoses, those with three carbon atoms are known as trioses, those with four are called tetroses, five are called pentoses and six are hexoses. Each carbon atom with a hydroxyl group (except the first and last carbon atoms) is assymmetric making them stereocenters with either right-side configuration or left-side configuration. Thus many isomers can exist for any given monosaccharide formula. Glucose, galactose and fructose are monosaccharides. Monosaccharides can link together in many ways to form disaccharides and poly- saccharides. One or ...Show more
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Biological molecules Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.net/science/286601-biological-molecules
(Biological Molecules Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words)
https://studentshare.net/science/286601-biological-molecules.
“Biological Molecules Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/science/286601-biological-molecules.
  • Cited: 0 times

Summary

DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid is a chain of nucleotide units consisting of a nitrogenous base, a deoxyribose sugar and a phosphate. There are 2 types of nitrogenous bases, namely, pyramidine and purine. In DNA, the pyramidines are cytosine and thymine and the purines are guanine and adenine…
Biological molecules
Read Text Preview
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the essay on your topic
"Biological molecules"
with a personal 20% discount.
Grab the best paper

Check these samples - they also fit your topic

Adhesion Molecules: Role in Health and Disease
ADHESION MOLECULES: ROLE IN HEALTH AND DISEASE Adhesion molecules play an important role in health and disease: they are known as ‘’the glue of life’’ (Etzioni, 1996). Adhesion molecules are involved in several biological processes such as human development, immunology and malignancy.
3 pages (750 words) Essay
Article Review(Mirror Molecules)
The new discoveries brought about by the most unlikely occurrences have challenged our understanding of right-handed amino acids and their role in the biological composition of some species, and most importantly, of the human physiology. As the building blocks of protein, left-handed amino acids also known as L-amino acids have always been accepted as the dominant over right-handed amino acids also known as D-amino acids which have easily been dismissed as having little to no role in the process.
5 pages (1250 words) Essay
The Hydrogen Bond
In liquid water and solid ice, the hydrogen bond is simply the chemical bond that exists between H2O molecules and keeps them together. Although relatively weak, hydrogen bonds are so numerous in water that they play a large role in determining their properties.
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Biological psychology
Biological psychology is also known as biopsychology, psychobiology, physiological psychology, behavioral neuroscience, and neuropsychology. Known research methods include studying changes in the central nervous system. Biological psychology also looks at genetics and their influence on the chances of a person getting a disease.
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Biological psychology
Biological psychology is also known as biopsychology, psychobiology, physiological psychology, behavioral neuroscience, and neuropsychology. Known
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Protein
As the research paper highlights it seems most people today are overly concerned about how they look, how much they weight, and especially about what they eat. Almost overnight American has become one of the most obese nations, and now everybody is scrambling to keep tabs on their diets and exercise.  
5 pages (1250 words) Essay
Macromolecule Research Project Overview
Carbohydrates or sugars are organic molecules made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms with the general formula (CH2 O)n , that play a central role in cells by providing energy and support (Miller & Levine 2003). The different kinds of
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Discuss the importance of adhesion molecules in health and disease
al and pathological conditions (when they are absent, over expressed or not working well) has been showed the last years, using different approaches that include the investigation of anti-adhesion agents, pharmaceutical approaches and animal models. Adhesion molecules have a
6 pages (1500 words) Essay
Personal profile about Roger Tsien who is biochemist
nature of biological molecules found in the cellular level, the task of studying cells even with the use of microscopes is a tedious task because of the tedious differentiation of biological molecules from each other. Biosensors have been a boon for scientists as they have
5 pages (1250 words) Essay
Case Study
2. The inheritance pattern; Tay-Sachs is a genetic disease that is only transferred to a child if both parents carry a Tay-Sachs gene. A child who inherits two defective
1 pages (250 words) Essay
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment
Let us find you another Essay on topic Biological molecules for FREE!
Contact us:
+16312120006
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us