i Central, Yi Dayao, Yi Eastern Lalu, Yi Eshan-Xinping, Yi Guizhou, Yi Limi, Yi Milli, Yi Miqie, Yi Muji, Yi Naluo, Yi Poluo, Yi Pula, Yi Puwa, Yi Sani, Yi Sichuan, Yi Southeastern Lolo, Yi Southern, Yi Southern Lolopho, Yi Western, Yi Western Lalu, Yi Wuding-Luquan, Yi Wumeng, Yi Wusa, Yi Xishan Lalu, Yi Yuanjiang-Mojiang, Yugur East, Yugur West, Zaiwa, Zauzou, Zhaba, Zhuang Northern, Zhuang Southern (Gordon). 2. Origin of Languages: While many different languages are spoken in China, the most dominant of all these is Chinese spoken by approximately 95% of China’s population. It belongs to the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. Although Chinese itself consists of many different dialects that some linguists may consider to be separate languages altogether, most consider these dialects to be variations on the Mandarin dialect that originated from Peking. The Chinese spoken language or modern dialects have been derived from Archaic Chinese used between the 8th and 3rd century BC as well as Middle Chinese, which was used up until roughly the 11th century AD. The Chinese written language has origins that go back even further, texts have been discovered in the form of inscriptions from the 14th century that share many similarities with modern Chinese text. In the early 20th century an effort was made by reformists to standardize and homogenize the Chinese language, in order, to bridge the communication gap between the different cultures of China. The result of this effort was the introduction of Baihua a standardized written form of Chinese in 1917 as well as Putonghua, a standardized spoken Chinese derived from the Mandarin dialect, which was used in schools from 1956 onwards (Noll). 3. Sample of Languages: ? ? ? ? ? ????? ? ?????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????? (The Chinese...
Confucianism evolved in the 5th century BC form the teachings of the philosopher Confucius or Kong Zi. The belief system revolves around “order” and “conformity” and in the idea that correct behaviour at an individual level forms the basis of an “ordered society”. Confucianism only became a religion with supernatural elements after the death of Confucius when Tang Dynasty Emperors began to promote Confucius as a deity that required sacrifice.
Taoism, the beliefs of Taoism are derived from the text Dao De Jing (The Way and Its Power) authored by Lao Zi in the 5th century BC. The beliefs of Taoists revolve around the idea that the “rhythm of social life” should not be interfered with. The ultimate goal in Taoism is to attain immortality, through various methods such as meditation.
Chinese Buddhism was evolved from orthodox Buddhism when it first began to appear in China during the 2nd century AD. Indigenous varieties of Buddhism include Zen Buddhism with its unique meditative techniques and Pure Land Buddhism, which focuses on attaining salvation (Soothill). China is a one party socialist state governed for the last 60 years by the Communist Party of China. The structure of Chinese government is divided into three separate institutions. The most powerful of these is the Standing Committee and Politburo of the Chinese Communist Party headed by the President and Vice-President who at this time are Hu Jintao and Xi Jinping.