He perceptively foresaw innovative social and ethical consequences.
In this new century, the global economy has entered an Information Technology era in which globalization and internet-based communication network have forced all large enterprises and companies to inevitably face with the challenge of multiple venture management, including production management, strategic management, and capital management. (Ashby, 1956) The common essence for these enterprises is the uncertainty of management outcome. That is the reason why the manager cannot find a long-term and changeless way for fluctuate business environment and management objects. The theory of opportunity cybernetics and decision harmonizing in this
paper is designated to overcome the difficulties of modern enterprises with multiple venture management. In the following, we will introduce several exceptional phenomena that affect the multiple venture management in the competitive global market. Then, we will outline the basic concepts and modeling of opportunity cybernetics and decision-harmonizing theory. Finally, an example of General Electric Company is shown to illustrate the practice of this theory in the real world.
The science of cybernetics emerged during the 1940s as a pa...
Others have subsequently developed his work extensively in the modern field of robotics. Wiener's group was interdisciplinary, bringing together mathematicians, biologists, operational researchers and physicists in a groundbreaking approach to developing a unified science for solving complex problems. Stafford Beer has for nearly forty years led the development of cybernetics in the study of organizations, creating the branch that we now call 'management' or 'organizational' cybernetics. (Beer, 1985)
This paper is concerned with the theory and principles of cybernetics and the relationship of the discipline to the achievement of quality in organizations. The focus is on the specific implementation and usage of cybernetics with its outcomes on General electric. Organizations are conceived here as societies, composed of people and existing as the product of their actions, interactions and of the technical artifacts which link and support them. Early work, from which the cybernetic principles were developed, addressed such diverse fields as automation, computing and radar, and built upon earlier discoveries such as Watt's steam engine governor, which are used to illustrate what Jackson (1991) has called 'management cybernetics'. Organizational cybernetics builds upon and draws ideas from that fundamental work, but 'breaks somewhat with the mechanistic and organismic thinking that typifies management cybernetics'.
Viable System Model (VSM)
The VSM is a model that in Beer's argument encapsulates effective organization. It is a model of any viable system, biological or social. The VSM stipulates rules whereby an organization is; 'survival-worthy'-it is regulated, learns, adapts and evolves.