One such act which relates vehemently the inclusive educational system is the famous act of No child Left Behind Act of 2001 in passed by the then American President George W. Bush. The paper will seek to analyse the social, economic and political status that led to the development of the act. Social status associated with the NCLB Act The national Commission on Excellence in Education in the year 1981 was vested upon the responsibility to review as well as synthesize literature and scholarly data in order to assess the then quality of teaching as well as educational standards in both the public as well as the private sector with a special emphasis on the educational experiences of the teen age youth. The report investigations revealed significant information among which the most important which can be stated here is that around 17% of all the 17 years old children in the United States of America was considered as functionally illiterate with the percentage of the minority youths reaching as high as 40 percent. Areas of faults were conjectured in the poor performances in important subjects like English, Physics, mathematics as well as in verbal communications. There was also deterioration in the academic achievements owing to the racial and ethnic differences as well. The findings and the report concentrated on the weaknesses of the approaches of content, expectations, time and teaching. Thus identification of these parameters let the government to drive its focus on the movement towards a standard based educational system which came up in the forefront with the passage of Improving America’s Schools Act of 1994 (IASA). The IASA along with the following implementation of the Goals 2000: Educate America Act, the ESEA focused on the ensuring of the needs of all the students including the disadvantaged students along with the children who were vulnerable to the risk of school. In the mid 1980s, the testing industry saw a major shift towards standard based high stake assessments as one of the most necessary components of the standard based reforms. There was also a shift in the expectations of the marketplace as well. Within the span of 1994-2000, majority of the states in America enhanced standards of the contents, standards of performance and so on. The states also demanded the minimization of the time lag between the testing and the receipt of the score reports (Jorgenson & Hoffman, 2003, pp. 1-5). The test scores as an indicator of the actual achievement of the students started to become implemented in the reality and along with that the notion of social justice was also attached to the implementation motive. Thus a wave of establishing a new law made the lawmakers rethink and establish a new law with various threshold standards set for the purpose of introduction to inclusive education as well as focus on the delivery of social justice (Robicheau, 2006, pp. 2-3). Within such a social backdrop, on January 8, 2002, American President George W. Bush declared the law of No Child Left Behind Act which was directed towards the establishment of absolute clarity towards the value, use as well as the importance of the achievement of the
No child left behind act The notion of the inclusive education has been greatly challenging in the adaptation of the approaches which fundamentally differs from the assumptions, structures as well as existent practices of the dominant structure of the educational institutes as well as different cultural ideologies associated with it (Hulgin & Drake, 2011, p.389)…
In order to make their roles effective, it is important for the Act to be effective in terms of assisting in the achievements of students. It is important to understand the underlying implication of exclusion, which is brought about by the programs where ultimately the challenged students need to drop out.
This situation made the No Child Left behind Act a reality. However, since its passage in 2001, it has been debated not only among experts but to its direct precursors as to its effectiveness in solving problems of drop outs among high school students. Teachers raised eyebrows if the Act would really address the problem of the increasing number of students failing to make it to the end of the school year.
However, in realization that the educational standard of the US is struggling to be at par with its international competitors, politicians have held certain assumptions as follows: • Students are unmotivated and need more immediate consequences tied to their learning.
Teachers and school staff have also been affected. This law has changed the previous manner in which money was delegated for educational purposes. Whether or not the impact of this law has been positive or negative is a controversial subject. The law was intended to improve academic performance.
The No Child Left Behind Program increases the special needs learners’ scores. The test taking environment of the special needs test takers is enhanced to fit the special learning needs of each diversely handicapped student. Indeed, the No Child Left Behind Act does not severely impact the special needs students by expecting them to do things that “Normal” Kids do, with the lawfully required accommodations implemented to bring out the special child’s learning potentials snugly implemented.
As the report declares the act was a reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act that was first legislated in 1965 and then reauthorized in 1994. The state of education has been a matter of grave concern since last several years and the NCLB Act was promulgated to expand the federal role at improving the educational standards.
The program, among other things is aimed at helping disadvantaged students get quality education. The program basically involves government funding of schools in different states as long as they (the states) develop assessments and apply them to all students at specific grade levels.
As the NCLB enacts the theories of standards-based education reform which emphasizes the implications of setting high standards and establishing measurable goals, it can bring about fundamental changes in the learning outcomes of the students. According to this act, "states will be required to implement standards-based assessments in reading and mathematics for pupils in each of the grades 3-8" (Olivert, 2007, p 2).