Appreciating the premise of citizenship in its relation to the local administration as well as the formation of social hierarchies means shifting it to the sphere of the subjects regarding variation, where social class, gender, and racial identities influence belonging. The erroneous depiction of immigrants in the United States as a "criminal threat" has in the past equipped anti-immigrant attitudes and political policy in spite of social scientists having established through extensive researches that immigrants are less likely to commit crimes when compared to their American-born countermen. In the 20th and 19th centuries, the immigrants travelling to America to begin new lives mainly consisted of Asians and Europeans. In America, these groups became the victims of racial as well as interethnic conflicts. The American government then imposed severe restrictions on the movement of particular ethnic groups such as the Asians. It also passed laws that saw the large scale expulsion of Mexicans who had come to America to improve their lives. It was not until the late 20th century that Asians and Latinos once more began to enter the United States in large numbers. The subsequent anti-immigrant attitude and government policies that were aimed at disenfranchising these ethnic groups, along with the oratories from public officials that progressed from calling immigrants "aliens" to identifying them as "criminal aliens," have served to validate the development of strategies like home as well as workplace sweeps, detention, and abrupt deportation (Massey, 190). This kind of policing that has also resulted in agencies such as the ‘Immigration Industrial Complex’. This is an industry that is based on immigrant captives and backed by Congressional powers. In the same way that the ‘War on Drugs’ and the ‘Prison Industrial Complex “sought to eliminate the impending political threat of young black males who came into maturity after the period of the civil rights movement, the ‘Immigration Industrial Complex’ is a scheme that is being used to eliminate Latino immigrants from mainstream society while also realizing a handsome profit for correctional facilities” (Fernandes, 169). It seeks to block their latent social advancement due to the fear by the White majority that the existence of an America in which there are less Whites than Latinos will pose a perilous political, demographic, and economic danger to the reducing white hegemonic arrangement. According to Deepa Fernandes, in the past few years, “in spite of every other ethnic collective in America benefitting from advancements, the opposite has been true in the case of Latino immigrants” (Fernandes, 169). This is because the detention of immigrants provides a source of revenue for all the correctional facilities that are created to house illegal immigrants as well other offenders. In spite of the efforts of many movements that seek to advance the lives of immigrants, many Latino immigrants still live lives of poverty because of the structures in mainstream White society that seek to marginalize them. Some of these structures are the American Congress, successive American governments, powerful business corporations and the right wing. In the recent past, the American congress declined to ratify humane pro-immigrant rules even though immigration policy is executed on a daily basis. The impasse in the government concerning the immigration issue allowed state as well as local governments to begin forming
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